Urban Growth

URBANIZATION IN INDIA:

  • As per 1951 census – India’s Population 360 mill and as per 2001 census – India’s Population 1027 mill - Growth Rate – 1.7%
  • As per 1951 census – Urban Population 62.4 mill (17.3%) and as per 2001 census –285 mill (27.8%) - Growth Rate calculated as 3.12%
  • No. of Urban Areas (2001) – 4378

URBAN UTTARAKHAND

TOWN/URBAN AGGLOMERATION

86

(A) MUNICIPAL CORPORATION 01
(B) NAGAR PALIKA PARISHAD 31
(C) NAGAR PANCHAYAT 31
(D) CANTONMENT BOARDS 09
(E) CENSUS TOWNS 12
(F) INDUSTRIAL TOWNSHIP 02

POPULATION STRUCTURE

S.NO.

DISTRICT

TOTAL POPULATION

URBAN POPULATION

1- UTTARKASHI 295013 22918
2- CHAMOLI 370359 50703
3- TEHRI 604747 59849
4- DEHRADUN 1282143 678742
5- PAURI-GARHWAL 697078 89875
6- RUDRAPRAYAG 227439 2732
7- HARIDWAR 1447187 446275
8- PITHORAGARH 462289 59833
9- ALMORA 630567 54505
10- NAINITAL 762909 269050
11- UDHAMSINGH NAGAR 1235614 403014
12- BAGESHWAR 249462 7803
13- CHAMPAWAT 224542 33778
TOTAL- 8489349 2179074

TOTAL STATE POPULATION - 8489349 (YR. 2000- 2001)

TOTAL RURAL POPULATION-6310275 (74.3% OF TOTAL POPULATION)

TOTAL URBAN POPULATION-2179074 (25.7% OF TOTAL POPULATION)

TOTAL FLOATING POPULATION OF STATE DURING TOURIST SEASON (2000-2001) – 1, 11, 35,580

PATTERN OF POPULATION GROWTH (1991-2001)

Population

Nagar Nigam

Nagarpalika Parishad

NagarPanchayats

(in lakhs) Dehradun
 
1991 2.70 9.59 1.40
2001 4.48 12.04 1.90
 
Overall growth rate
1991-2001(%)
(65.76) (25.58) (35.33)

Localities with population growth rates higher than the overall growth rate (1991-2001)

Nagarpalika Parishads

Nagar Panchayats

Gopeshwar Kichha Barkot Kelakhera
Tehri Gadarpur Gangotri Didihaat
Rishikesh Bazpur Gauchar Dharchula
Nainital Jaspur Rudraprayag Champawat
Ramnagar Sitarganj Kedarnath Lohaghat
Kashipur Khatima Muni-ki-reti
Rudrapur Bageshwar Dineshpur
Tanakpur

Localities with negative population growth rates (1991-2001)

Narendra Nagar Mussoorie Badrinath Kirtinagar
Devprayag Dwarahat

Uttarakhand is the rural centered state, presently facing rapid pace of urbanization especially in the popular Districts like- Dehradun, Nainital, Haridwar & Udham Singh Nagar. The state has few old urban settlements like- Dehradun, Nainital & Mussoorie which is moreover covered by the rural settlements. In Uttarakhand total number of Urban Settlements/ Agglomerations – 86 (63- Towns, 9 – Cantonment Areas, 2- Industrial Townships and 12 – Census Towns). Out of 63 towns, Dehradun is the only Municipal Corporation and rest 31 Nagar Palika Parishad & 31 Nagar Panchayats (now 01 Nagar Panchayat is upgraded as Nagar Palika Parishad in the year 2008 during IInd Municipal Elections of the state representing 32 Nagar Palika Parishad & 29 Nagar Panchayats) are in the existence. Because of Hilly State, most of the towns are topographically hilly in nature.

The history gives the evidence of urbanization in Uttarakhand. These towns were originally rural settlements converted into towns in the later stages. The basic reason behind this is the tourism because the state is the heart of famous pilgrimages. Originally these small towns were the stoppage centres of the pilgrims during “Yatra Season”. Slowly because of number of commercial activities, these stoppage places developed into the small towns, small to medium town. These town/cities converted into mega cities in later stage. This is being the regular pattern of urban development in the state. Few cities settled because of some natural calamities for example – Gopeshwar because of the flood in Alakhnanda River. In this way the urban development occurred in Uttarakhand significantly in unplanned manner which results lack of civic amenities according to the population density. Population pressure on the cities not only causing unavoidable burden on the available infrastructure facilities but also hinders the social and economic development process of the cities. On the other side of coin tourism is contributing much in the state’s economy. Cities are now become the hub of capitalization of the state as well. Thus the urban growth in Uttarakhand is affecting both positively & negatively.

Unplanned development, together with rapid urban growth and the inflow of tourists and pilgrims has made critical impacts on the urban environment of Uttarakhand. Most of the towns in Uttarakhand have grown in an unplanned manner causing immense pressure on the urban infrastructure and services resulting in degradation of the urban environment and of natural resources. Major environmental concerns associated with such unplanned urban development are depletion of forest area, loss of bio-diversity, potential urban pollution in the form of air, water, noise, solid and liquid waste discharges and landslide. Some of the major rivers which are drinking and irrigation water sources for the states downstream of Uttarakhand, as well as being of religious significance are silted and polluted due to the unplanned urban development and industrial activities. These rivers also act as major drainage outlets for the towns, and are often used as a convenient means of solid waste disposal. Lakes and water bodies which are also attraction for tourists are polluted due to uncontrolled discharge of wastewater and disposal of solid wastes.

There is a need to assess and examine the root cause of the problems and identify the strength of the state by means of balanced systematic planning in consensus with Urban Local Bodies and Citizens of the native towns to get rid of all these issues.

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